THE DAO OF CHINA, ITALY AND EUROPE, Comments to the presentation of Xi Jin Ping’s book in Rome

On March 23th, in Rome, the Italian version of the book if President Xi Jinping,”The Governance of China”,  (“Governare la Cina”) has been presented by The State Council Information Office of China, China International Publishing Group (CIPG) The Chinese Embassy in Italy

Foreign Languages Press and Giunti Editore S.p.A, in Palazzo Colonna, Rome.  Xi Jinping’s thought, as it has been expressed in the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and in the book, is focussed on the idea that China is entitled, and obliged, because of its unique history, scale and power, to participate on an equal footing in decisions concerning the future of mankind.

Notwithstanding the frequent comparisons between the “Americam Exceptionalism” and the idea of  “Zhong Guo”, China’  approach is  different from the one adopted by the United States, which, according to a constant tradition, starting from George Washington, Emerson and Whitman, have conceived themselves as “the legislators of mankind”, so deliberately understating the contributions of different cultural traditions.

  1. Wu Wei

The concept underlying the idea of the participation of China in world affairs is the typically Asian idea of “Wu Wei” (Sanskrit “ahimsa”= “action without effort, or violence”), which means that, though wise men may act in society and history, their action is not direct, nor violent, but, on the contrary, aims at a long term impact of their wisdom, of their self- control, of their example and of their teachings.

Things have changed since the times of Lao Tse, but this has not made Wu Wei obsolete; on the contrary, that approach is still more needed now than before, because digitalisation and Artificial Intelligence have emphasized the immaterial aspects of geopolitics.

In reality, it is impossible, for this kind of reasons, to address today’s existential risks (such as the taking over, by machines, of control over mankind), either via a  XX century approach, or through a sort of technological determinism. Relevant solutions can come only from a higher level of wisdom, such as the one of the Confucian Junzi, of the Daoist Xian,of the Buddhist Rshi or of the Christian Saints.

The crucial question for the survival of mankind is its capability to maintain control over the complex technological apparatus, enhancing, to the maximum extent as possible, the positive qualities of mankind, in such a way that decisions will be taken, also in the future, at human level, whereas only their implementation will be a task for machines. The symbol of this control is the gigantic robot Mazinga, steered by a child hidden at its heart.

2.China’s unique achievements

China’s ancient culture and strong organisational structure allows the country to achieve a high level of understanding of the ongoing processes, beyond temporary moods and ideologies, permitting to it an effective decision-making process. This is shown, i.a., by the unique achievements of China in the last 50 years, after the massive destructions caused by one hundred years of wars (Opium Wars, Taiping and Boxers uprisings, North Campaign, Long March, Japanese invasion, civil war, Korean, China-India and Vietnam wars).

In the last few years, China has become the country with the highest gross internal revenue, the main holder of foreign debt (including US and Italian debts), as well the most advanced country in the areas of telecommunications, quantic computing, high speed railways and hypersonic missiles.

Invoking his country’s ancient past in order to define its future, Xi makes, in his book, a cultural appeal that fashions a historical continuity between Confucian values and contemporary “socialism with Chinese characteristics”. With the formal systematization of Xi Jinping’s thought in the CCP’s Constitution ,a new political era has emerged in China. The present-day merging of Confucianism with another dominant logic—Chinese Marxism—mirrors, at least tangentially, an ancient Chinese antecedent, when the Ming and later Qing governments codified Neo-Confucianism as a guiding convention within their respective administrations.

Also from a commercial point of view, China has shown a unique capability to cope with the challenges of today’s world, governed by digitalisation, by the creation of  multinational corporations such as Alibaba, Baidu, Tencent, Huawei and ZTE. Up to now, only China has succeeded in this effort, what has not yet happened with Russia, India and Europe. Therefore, the existence of a strong Chinese  digital industry is the best guarantee against the risk of a monopoly in the area of Artificial Intelligence.

Gradually growing into an iconic brand in Europe, China Railway Express, which connects 59 Chinese cities with 49 European cities in 15 countries, made 6,363 trips in 2018, surging 73 percent from 2017, according to the China Railway Corporation. The Belt and Road Initiative will liaise the Chinese high speed trains network (the largest of the world), with the existing TEN-T corridors of the European Union, bringing new business opportunities to crisis-ridden Europe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.Negotiations with Italy and Europe

On 23 of March, the MOU about the Belt and Road Initiative has been signed in Rome with the Italian Government. This MOU, strictly compliant with several European documents dealing with the relationships with China and with connectivity with Asia, opens up a large spectrum of cooperation opportunities in areas such as worldwide policies, cultural exchanges, joint industrial projects, the promotion of Italian style, and, especially, connectivity.

In particular, the MOU gives a concrete content to China’s interest for Italy as a western terminal for the Belt and Road Initiative, defining an interest for the ports of Genoa and Trieste. This choice has a paramount impact on Northern Italy, presently ridden by a 0% growth as a consequence of the worldwide slowing down of economy, caused by Trump’s trade wars. Northern Italy is nearer to the Suez Channel than Rotterdam and Hamburg. Therefore, it is important that ships may be downloaded there, so better serving not only Northern Italy, but also the Alpine Region and Central-Eastern Europe. The Chinese cooperation will speed up the renovation of those two Italian ports, for making them apt to convey a heavy burden of maritime traffic.

On the 9th of April, the Chinese Government will meet the European Union, many members of which have already signed MOUs similar to the one signed in Rome.

The meeting is important because it should speed up a commercial treaty, including the investments regimes, between China and Europe, due to substitute commercial agreements in force with each member State, and overdue since a long time because of the ever changing international political and business climate.

A tight connection with China is badly needed by the EU because of the present economic crisis and for facing US duties. Already the purchase of 290 airplanes from Airbus, the European aerospace champion, has been an important help, by China, to the ailing European economy. Moreover, completion of the TEN-T, especially for what concerns Central and Eastern Europe, is delayed. The Chinese contribution should help Europe to carry out the proposed programs.

4.A cultural Silk Road

As it has been made clear in Xi Jinping’s book, as well as in the other book presented in Rome in these days, “La Chiesa in Cina”, with the participation of Italy’s Prime Minister Conte,  as well as in the speeches exchanged during Xi Jinping’s visit, the core meaning of the Italian adhesion to the Belt and Road initiative is neither economic, nor political, but rather cultural. China and Italy (“Da Qin”) two of the oldest civilisations in the World,  have influenced immensely the Western and the Eastern parts of the world for three thousand years. Their mutual relationships have shaped the ancient Silk Road, with Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, Marco Polo, Matteo Ricci, Giovanni Castiglione, ecc…

These countries have an important role to play also in the  future of Mankind, thanks to their ancient wisdom.

The Belt and Road initiative is important for us because it gives a concrete content to this ancient relationship.

 

LA DECRESCITA INFELICE IN EUROPA, ITALIA E TORINO

Il piano degli orari della Via della Seta disegnato dall’ osservatorio Tav come se fosse un metrò

Siamo stati educati, almeno a partire dalla 2° Guerra Mondiale, a pensare che l’unico obiettivo seriamente perseguibile da parte di una società fosse l’incremento della disponibilità di beni materiali. Certo, vi erano profonde differenze fra coloro che proponevano questo benessere come realizzabile attraverso un ordinato sviluppo dei ceti produttivi in base alle leggi consolidate nella storia, e quelli che sostenevano, invece, che il pieno sviluppo delle energie produttive si sarebbe potuto ottenere soltanto con una rigida organizzazione economica diretta da un partito progressista; fra coloro che sostenevano che il benessere dovesse essere distribuito sal mercato o dallo Stato. Tuttavia, l’obiettivo finale restava lo stesso: “case, scuole, ospedali”, ottenuti attraverso l’industrializzazione: in una parola, “il Progresso” (Taguieff, “Le sens du Progrès”). Tanto il “miracolo economico” occidentale quanto la “costruzione del socialismo” ad Est furono alimentati da questo obiettivo. Fu un periodo di duro lavoro, e anche di repressione, ma che suscita tutt’ora, in coloro che l’hanno vissuto, un ricordo positivo, in primo luogo come reazione agli orrori e alle privazioni della 2° Guerra Mondiale, e, in secondo, per l’apparente successo della ricostruzione, confrontato con la “stagnazione” che seguì, in tempi diversi, all’ Est e all’ Ovest. Non per nulla le televisioni di tutta Europa continuano a propinarci ancor oggi spettacoli che richiamano i fasti provinciali di Sanremo e dei cori dell’ Armata Rossa, del Commonwealth e dell’ Ostalgie.

Oggi, però, dopo mezzo secolo di sotterranea erosione dell’economia europea, dalla morte di Olivetti allo shock petrolifero, dal debito polacco alla “Stagnazione” brezhneviana, dalle delocalizzazioni ai “defaults”, dalle sanzioni ai dazi, nessuno crede più che il futuro prometta all’ Europa un mondo di ricchezza crescente. Le statistiche sono lì a dimostrare che la quota dell’economia mondiale che si muove al di fuori dell’ Europa aumenta costantemente. Anzi, sono tutti convinti che la nostra situazione continuerà a peggiorare, almeno rispetto alla Cina, all’ India e all’ America (anche se nessuno dice veramente perché). Una spiegazione implicita, anche se detta a mezza bocca, è quella della “middle class trap”: quando un Paese raggiunge un certo livello di benessere, non sarebbe più competitivo e perderebbe anche l’incentivo a migliorare. Spiegazione che reggerebbe solo all’ interno della “Teoria dello Sviluppo” di Rostow, che presuppone che sempre e dovunque si debba seguire l’iter storico che ha caratterizzato gli Stati Uniti, mentre invece la storia sta dimostrando che l’iter dell’economia segue strade diverse a longitudini e latitudini diverse. Ed è questo che sta mettendo in crisi filosofia e religione, politica e società. Basta che certe aree non siano sotto l’influenza politica degli Stati Uniti, e le “leggi dello sviluppo” perdono di valore: basta guardare la Cina.

A mio avviso, per capire la crisi dell’Europa, dell’Italia e di Torino, occorre cumulare almeno tre effetti: l’indebolimento della tempra degli Europei er effetto educazione anti-identitaria post-bellica; il ruolo direttivo degli Stati Uniti; la scelta della decolonizzazione, fatta  accettando, direttamente o indirettamente, la Carta Atlantica.

L’“educazione antiautoritaria”,  che trova le sue radici nell’etica kantiana, che si è sviluppata (seppure con ripensamenti) con la Scuola di Francoforte e si completa con il consumismo, ha tolto agli Europei quel piglio polemico che è necessario per qualunque azione seria, anche per fondare imprese, dirigere i collaboratori, sconfiggere la concorrenza ed invadere lontani mercati. La subordinazione agli Stati Uniti ha fatto sì che si accettasse la programmazione di fatto della società da parte americana, istituzionalizzata con il Piano Marshall, con l’implicita condizione di subire sempre le priorità dell’America (“America First”), e sacrificando di conseguenza quelle europee. Come si vide con i successivi obiettivi dell’allargamento dei consumi, della democratizzazione, delle liberalizzazioni, delle privatizzazioni, della deregolamentazione, dei “diritti”, delle guerre umanitarie, della lotta al terrorismo, della “politica di internet”, del blocco all’ immigrazione, ecc…La decolonizzazione, portata fino in fondo, ha portato anche a una diversa ripartizione delle funzioni sociali nella divisione internazionale del lavoro, dove i ruoli meglio pagati (imperiali, imprenditoriali, politici, finanziari, intellettuali, manageriali) sono passati gradualmente dall’ Europa all’America, alla Russia, alla Cina, all’India, al Medio Oriente, restando in Europa sempre più quelli gregari,  meramente esecutivi. Lo stesso Aiuto allo Sviluppo  è stato una forma di restituzione di ricchezza , preconizzata già da De Las Casas, per compensare gli effetti del colonialismo, alla fine del quale si dovrebbe a rigore ipotizzare che il PIL pro-capite dei Paesi donatori e dei Paesi recipienti dovrebbe risultare eguale (già oggi si è molto ravvicinato).

A meno che, nel frattempo, non fossero state inventate nuove forme di eccellenza, che ci permettessero di emergere nella competizione internazionale in modo diverso. Che è quello che ha fatto l’America con l’informatica, la Russia con l’esercito e la Cina con la Via della Seta.

Ciò avrebbero dovuto esserlo, per l’ Europa, i cosiddetti “valori post-materialistici”. Era in sostanza ciò che l’ Unione Europea ci prometteva quando parlava dell’ “Europa potenza gentile”, propositrice del federalismo, un nuovo esperimento di convivenza internazionale che avrebbe fato di noi un modello da imitare. E quello che diceva anche Jeremy Rifkin, americano immigrato in Europa che sosteneva che il “sogno europeo” avrebbe surclassato il “sogno americano”.

Nulla di tutto ciò è avvenuto. L’Europa non sta più inventando nulla, mentre, invece, l’America continua a inventare Internet e la Singularity, e la Cina la Via della Seta. Probabilmente, la nostra via ai valori post-materialistici era sbagliata.

Certo, una forma di “restituzione” ai Paesi coloniali era dovuta. L’aveva già scritto Bartolomé de Las Casas nella sua “Relaciòn sobre la destrucciòn de las Indias”. Tuttavia, a me sembra che tale restituzione sia già abbondantemente avvenuta, con l’abnorme trasferimento di ricchezza in America, e negli altri “Paesi di immigrati”, da almeno un secolo, e con 70 anni di aiuto allo sviluppo. L’Europa ha avuto in passato delle colpe, ma non si può fargliele pagare in eterno, soprattutto quando sono 500 anni che si permette invece di prosperare senza rimorsi e senza scuse ai cosiddetti “Paesi di emigranti”, che in realtà sono i veri Paesi dei genocidi e delle spoliazioni. Infine, fin qui nessuno ha considerato l’ulteriore trasferimento transnazionale di risorse che sta avvenendo comunque, verso i Paesi artici, per effetto del surriscaldamento atmosferico.

Comunque sia, si diceva, crollate le non motivate speranze di una ricchezza comparabile a quella di  epoche irripetibili, figlie indirette della mobilitazione bellica, ci sarebbero rimasti almeno i “valori” di pace, libertà e democrazia, ma anche questi, dopo decenni di partitocrazia, spionaggio, smantellamento delle imprese e dei diritti, guerre umanitarie, sembrano sempre meno realizzati, e perfino non più credibili.

Oggi, si parla solo più di “stabilità”, di “risparmio” e di aiuto ai più deboli, ma anche queste sono parole vuote, perché è evidente a tutti che l’economia europea ci sta franando sotto i piedi, che viviamo di rendita e che fra breve nulla dei “diritti sociali” resterà in piedi. Il nostro relativo benessere nesce soltanto dalla scarsa fecondità, che fa sì suddiviso che un PIL decrescente per un numero decrescente di abitanti, il PIL pro-capite resti invariato, in modo che tutti possano continuare a vivere di rendita fin che muoiono, senza lasciare eredi.

Sarebbe ora che si compisse una seria riflessione sui veri “valori post-materialistici”, che oggi vengono in realtà repressi, per esempio distruggendo il patrimonio naturale e storico, attaccando le religioni, minimizzando il ruolo della cultura classica e tagliando i fondi alla cultura.

Nel terzo trimestre del 2018, non soltanto l’economia italiana, ma anche quella europea, si sono attestate sulla “crescita 0”, quel mitico obiettivo che paradossalmente il Club di Roma, Serge Latouche e Beppe Grillo hanno indicato come positivo, e necessario da raggiungere, ma che certamente non fa piacere alla gran parte degli Europei, anzi li inquieta a tal punto da spingerli a disertare il voto (e/o a votare per i “populisti”).

Sui giornali si afferma che l’opinione pubblica (per esempio, a Torino) rifiuta la “decrescita felice”, ma nessuno (men che mai economisti e politici) è in grado di dirci come si potrà conseguire una crescita reale (vale a dire superiore all’ inflazione e all’ obsolescenza tecnologica), dato che tutte le ricette delle scuole economiche ufficiali (protezionismo e liberismo, assistenzialismo e deregulation, keynesismo e socialismo), sono già state tentate senza successo. Non sarà certo (ammesso che si faccia) la TAV, ultimo rametto ancora incompiuto della Via della Seta, a fare per noi  una reale differenza.

Sarà pure che l’opinione pubblica rifiuta la “decrescita felice”, ma questo significa solo che l’opinione pubblica non conta nulla. In realtà, l’”establishment” ha sposato da sempre la decrescita felice, vale a dire la rinunzia, da parte dell’ Europa, a rivendicare un suo peso nella divisione mondiale del lavoro, e del potere. Questo perché da sempre è partita dall’ idea che noi dovessimo essere i “followers” dell’ America, e che le cose più ambiziose (ideologia, spazio, guerra, scienza) non fossero fatte per noi. Ora, dopo un secolo di rinunce, è evidente che il gap tecnologico fra noi e le Grandi Potenze è divenuto così incolmabile, che esercita effetti pesantissimi anche sull’economia e sulla vita di tutti i giorni (per esempio, attraverso le multinazionali dell’ informatica).

Quanto, poi, all’ economia di Torino, essa va, certo, verso la decrescita più spaventosa del mondo intero, ma per nulla felice. E come potrebbe essere diversamente se abbiamo perso, nel tempo, la Corte, l’aristocrazia, la cinematografia, i computer, la moda, l’editoria, la formazione, l’aeronautica, le automobili, la finanza? Di che cosa si potrebbero occupare oggi coloro che prima erano cortigiani, ufficiali, rivoluzionari, progettisti, dirigenti d’azienda, bancari, tecnici, operai, editori, sindacalisti, e, soprattutto, i loro figli? Certo, possono sempre emigrare, ma, in un’era di “familismo amorale”, di micronazionalismi e di lottizzazioni ideologiche, quante “chances” hanno i nostri giovani qualificati di fare carriera  contro gli emigranti dal Sud e dell’ Est, contro i Tedeschi o gl’Inglesi?

E’ giunto dunque il momento di riflettere seriamente, a livello “filosofico”, su che cosa conti veramente per noi e su che cosa ci stia veramente accadendo.

1.Critica della ragione economica

Intanto, c’è del vero nelle esternazioni di Beppe Grillo, che riprendono una polemica di lunga data di ampi settori della cultura e della politica. Dopo settant’anni passati a studiare accanitamente per trovare un lavoro, a investire per il futuro, a spendere il nostro tempo in fumosi uffici, in  maleodoranti officine e su infermali autostrade; a batterci per poterci realizzare nella società; a litigare per imporre una determinata condotta aziendale o di economia nazionale, incominciamo a chiederci se il nostro errore non sia consistito proprio in questa frenetica ossessione per l’ economia. Questa fissazione ci ha istupiditi, ci ha alienati, ci ha indeboliti, ci ha impedito di comprendere come vadano veramente le cose, di dedicarci quanto conviene alla cura di noi stessi – il che significa anche alla lotta civile per fare valere le nostre ragioni, anche in campo economico-.

E i risultati di questo istupidimento si vedono: l’Europa fanalino di coda della crescita mondiale; l’ Europa senza industrie informatiche, culturali, della difesa; l’Europa protettorato dell’ America e colonizzata economicamente dall’ Asia. Non passa giorno senza che le nostre imprese siano acquisite, quale dagli Americani, quale dai Cinesi, chi dagli Arabi, chi dai Giapponesi, chi dagl’Indiani, chi dai Turchi, chi dai Russi. Noi invece non acquisiamo mai nulla in quei Paesi.

Bel risultato dopo settant’anni di sedicenti governanti europeisti, che a Lisbona avevano promesso che l’Europa sarebbe divenuta nel 2010 l’area economica più competitiva del pianeta.

La fine della politica è stata, dunque, anche la fine dell’autoaffermazione dell’Europa.

2.Guerra senza limiti

Ha ragione Grillo: in una società ben ordinata, l’economia dovrebbe costituire soltanto una parte delle nostre preoccupazioni, le altre essendo la spiritualità, la salute, la comunità, la natura, la cultura…Ma noi non viviamo affatto in una società ben ordinata, bensì in una società decerebrata, che corre deliberatamente verso l’autodistruzione.

Fermare questa corsa costituisce la nostra ragion d’essere oggi. Quale dunque l’ordine delle priorità in questo “stato di guerra” permanente contro le macchine intelligenti e un establishment traditore e suicida?

“Primum vivere, deinde philosophari”. Ma è veramente un “vivere” il sopravvivere in questo limbo in cui da decenni vediamo lo sfacelo, lo denunziamo, cerchiamo di raddrizzarlo, ci battiamo, ma non serve a nulla? Forse non abbiamo proprio riflettuto abbastanza, e non abbiamo combattuto abbastanza, o almeno non in un modo strategicamente efficace. Occorre dunque ritornare ai massimi principi, alle ragioni per cui vale la pena vivere e di combattere.

 3.Una classe dirigente perduta

E’ vano attendersi che, senza essere stata debellata sul campo di battaglia, una classe dirigente riconosca apertamente che la propria visione del mondo è sbagliata, e che, quindi, la propria leadership è inutile e dannosa. Quindi, dovremo assistere ancora per lungo tempo all’agonia di questo “establishment”, che, pur cambiando continuamente cappelli ed etichette (fascismo, Occidente, democrazia, progresso, sinistra, liberalismo, 2° Repubblica, populismo), non riesce a cambiare nella sostanza, salvo declinare ininterrottamente al ribasso, come i gamberi, le proprie rivendicazioni ideologiche: prima, il “primato morale e civile degl’Italiani”,poi, l’ eguaglianza universale, e, via via, la “democrazia”, ”, il miracolo economico, il progresso tecnico, l’ antiautoritarismo, l’ “innovazione”, i “diritti”, il costituzionalismo, la ricostruzione, almeno, la “ripresa”, la “ripresina”…

Continueranno così ancora un bel po’, trovando sempre nuovi camuffamenti per impedire di vedere i problemi e impedire una trasformazione effettiva.

Intanto , diviene possibile comprendere il filo rosso della logica di potere che ha dominato questi decenni. Ha ragione anche Chiara Appendino a difendersi dalle accuse da destra e sinistra, affermando che sono state queste ultime, e non il Movimento Cinque Stelle, a coprire il progressivo declassamento della città, coprendo con parole antisonanti come Patria e “Roma o Morte”, atlantismo e libera competizione; consolidamento,  apertura dei mercati e globalizzazione, la realtà vera di una città che si arrendeva senza combattere.

 4. L’economia quale strumento d’indipendenza

Il dibattito sul “reddito di cittadinanza” ci permette di comprendere quale sia la funzione più importante  dell’economia nella società postmoderna. Se la maggior parte della popolazione dovesse veramente essere mantenuta dallo Stato, come ormai quasi tutti credono,e alcuni, addirittura, propugnano,  la prima sconfitta sarebbe quella della libertà: lavoro e ricchezza sono infatti due forme fondamentali dello “jus activae civitatis”. Esse non sono valori fini a se stessi, bensì due strumenti con cui le persone libere possono condizionare la società, e, in tal modo, contribuire a fare la storia. Se si tolgono loro queste due forze, divengono ciechi strumenti di una volontà impersonale: il Servo Arbitrio, la Volontà Generale, il General Intellect, la Singularity.

Ma, come dicevo, noi non viviamo in una società normale, bensì in uno stato di guerra civile mondiale: abbiamo una ben precisa guerra da combattere (la “Guerra senza Limiti”), quella contro il dominio, sulle persone, delle macchine intelligenti. Orbene, come in tutte le guerre, ci vogliono i combattenti e i soldi. Per questo l’economia continua ad essere importante: serve, o, meglio, dovrebbe servire, innanzitutto, per  addestrare i lavoratori/cittadini a controllare le macchine intelligenti e per generare quelle risorse che ci permettano di fronteggiare l’escalation tecnologica che si sta sviluppando a livello mondiale. L’Europa è oggi purtroppo all’ultimo posto nella società digitale mondiale, dopo USA, Cina, Russia e India.

 5.Che cosa non va dunque nell’ economia europea?

Ho scritto spesso in questo blog circa i limiti dell’economia europea. Oggi, due anni dopo l’elezione di Trump, le nostre analisi si sono rivelate più esatte di quanto mai avessimo osato immaginare: si tratta del cosiddetto “contingentamento dell’ Europa” profetizzato da Trockij e realizzato in esito alle due Guerre Mondiali. Affinché si perpetui il mito dell’America quale guida dell’ Umanità, occorre, occorre che nessuno ne offuschi il primato simbolico, soprattutto nessuno in Occidente. Altrimenti, nessuno crederà più, non solo alla sua missione provvidenziale, ma, alla fine, neppure alla Modernità quale sbocco finale e necessario della Storia.

Con le due guerre mondiali, l’ America si è garantita dunque il controllo dei “rubinetti” con cui può regolare a suo piacimento lo sviluppo dell’Europa: l’ideologia; le lobby; la finanza; i media; la tecnologia; la bomba atomica; le basi militari; il dollaro; le multinazionali. Grazie a tutto questo, ha potuto trasferire le contrattazioni finanziarie da Londra a New York,  l’arte astratta da Parigi a New York, le industrie militari dalla Germania e le prime tecnologie digitali dall’Ungheria e dalla Polonia; ha potuto programmare l’economia europea con il Piano Marshall; stroncare Olivetti, Concorde, Minitel; comprare le multinazionali europee; scremare tutti i business con il web e i paradisi fiscali; strangolare il business con la Russia e l’ Iran e rendere più care le nostre esportazioni; prelevare una tassa maggiore per la difesa nonostante le nostre difficoltà economiche.

Ancora oggi, l’America condiziona perfino il nostro modo abnorme di essere filo-russi, sotto la pesante ombra di Trump.

6.Dal contingentamento americano allo svuotamento dell’ economia novecentesca

Potrebbe andare peggio? Certo che può andare peggio; in un certo senso, va  già peggio.

E’ brutto essere un protettorato contingentato, ma è ancora più brutto essere contingentati da un Paese che sta diventando a sua volta una colonia. Ora, come osserva Foer nel suo “I nuovi poteri forti”, le Big Five stanno svuotando delle sue prerogative lo stato americano, conducendo una loro politica autonoma con la Cina; manipolando le elezioni, l’editoria e i media; imponendo un succube conformismo agli intellettuali; sovrapponendosi ai servizi segreti; imponendosi al presidente; declassando le multinazionali. Fra breve, lo Stato americano sarà una semplice colonia delle Big Five, e noi il protettorato di una colonia.

Peggio ancora è l’essere il protettorato di una colonia quando il colonizzatore va verso la guerra contro una coalizione invincibile: quella eurasiatica ( il Comitato di Difesa di Shanghai).

 7.Gli scambi con l’ Eurasia: una “leva” per riequilibrare i poteri con gli USA

Per uscire dalle prospettive, assai prossime, della recessione, aggravata dalla certezza dell’impossibilità del rilancio, per mancanza di idee, dell’economia europea, ma soprattutto dall’ affermarsi della Società delle Macchine Intelligenti e ancor più dal rischio incombente di guerra fra l’America e il resto del mondo per difendere la propria egemonia, l’unico salvagente a cui aggrapparsi è un possibile contrasto all’ egemonia americana appoggiandosi alla crescente influenza dell’Eurasia.

Fortunatamente, nell’elogiare la TAV, i promotori della manifestazione torinese hanno pronunziato le fatidiche parole “Eurasia” e “Via della Seta”, che oggi costituiscono le uniche uscite di salvataggio dal declino. E, in effetti, ben pochi sanno che la TAV è una delle ultime maglie della Via della Seta: una delle poche ancora non completate.

Se la politica è, come diceva Bismarck, un “parallelogramma delle forze”, allora è un fatto obiettivo che la “ragnatela” che avvolge il mondo a partire dall’ America si sta lacerando in vari punti: nel Mar della Cina, in Medio Oriente, in Africa. Emergono punte avanzate della Cina in Pakistan, Kenya, Etiopia,Grecia, Serbia, Ungheria, Italia. La Russia ha i propri agganci in tutta Europa, in Siria, in Iran, ma anche in Israele.

Tutto ciò non può non avere il proprio impatto anche a Bruxelles e negli Stati Uniti, e infatti lo ha. Suoi prodotti: i “4 di Visegrad”, i “16+1”, l’ ASEM, Trump. Per ora, si tratta di una trasformazione infinitesimale: nessuno di questi fenomeni ha ancora realizzato il “sorpasso” della Cina sugli USA, né la fuoriuscita di nessun Paese dalla visione del mondo scientista e messianica nata da Cristoforo Colombo e da Bacone. Tuttavia, s’incominciano a sentire i primi scricchiolii dell’impianto puritano e atlantico in cui siamo ingabbiati: il ritorno, nel discorso pubblico, delle antiche religioni e dei classici delle filosofie orientali e occidentali; una certa qual maggiore confidenza in se stessi di molti popoli; la ripresa, da parte di molti governanti europei, della “politica dei due forni” cara ai vecchi governi democristiani (cfr. p. es., Tsipras, Orban,Salvini, Di Maio, Heiko Maas, Macron….).

Certo che Macron ha effettivamente detto che la politica europea di difesa è diretta anche contro gli Stati Uniti. Ma è quello che diceva sempre anche De Gaulle, quando affermava che la “Force de Frappe” dev’essere “à tous les azimuths”. Ma perché mai non dovrebbe esserlo, quando Trump stesso considera gli Europei come dei nemici e lo dice anche?

Comunque sia, queste prime avvisaglie potrebbero annunziare una trasformazione reale se anticipassero una politica unitaria dell’ Europa. Lo stanno intuendo tanto l’attuale “establishment” , quanto i sedicenti “sovranisti”. Nessuno dei due ha però un progetto strategico convincente, perché nessuno dei due osa affrontare il tabù che è alla base dell’ attuale sistema: la subordinazione culturale, storica, ideologica, politica, militare, economica e sociale all’ America, che viene documentata da sempre nuovi, ponderosi libri in tutti i campi dello scibile, dalla storia(Israel), all’economia (Eichengreen, Steil), alle relazioni internazionali (Hathaway,Shapiro).

Se, nell’ analisi delle ragioni remote della crisi, si partisse dallo studio approfondito della subordinazione complessiva dell’ Europa,   quest’ultima farebbe poi relativamente in fretta a darsi un’autonoma cultura, a organizzare una “sovranità digitale europea”, a  creare una leadership coerente, a organizzare dei “campioni europei” in sostituzione degli ormai pochi e obsoleti “campioni nazionali”.

E si riuscirebbe anche a rispondere a Trump:

-che non c’è alcuna ragione per cui l’America debba spendere per la difesa più di 700 milioni di dollari l’anno, cioè la metà della spesa militare mondiale, che costituisce obiettivamente una minaccia per tutti i Paesi del modo, e il maggior incentivo per la corsa agli armamenti;

-che, se Europa e Usa vogliono restare alleate, occorrerà ridimensionare gli obiettivi militari, dall’ offesa alla difesa;

-che, ammesso che l’Europa aumenti le proprie spese, non lo dovrà fare in modo funzionale alla difesa americana, bensì fornendosi di ciò in cui essa è oggi carente (intelligence, cyberguerra, nucleare, missili ipersonici, armi spaziali), e favorendo la propria industria della difesa.

Solo in quell’ atmosfera avrebbe senso parlare di “valori non materialistici”, che non sono quelli della società dei consumi o del livellamento verso il basso, bensì quelli tradizionali dai tempi dell’Epoca Assiale: spiritualità, eccellenza, estetica, libertà, patriottismo, cultura…., che l’ Europa condivide con gli altri popoli dell’ Eurasia.

Solo così si potrebbero realizzare veramente gli obiettivi conclamati a vuoto dalla destra e della sinistra: una vera sovranità, la ripresa del nostro ruolo nel mondo, il rilancio del PIL;occupazione, investimenti sociali e infrastrutturali, diritti dei lavoratori).

Il fatto che nessuno ne voglia nemmeno sentir parlare dimostra invece che, non soltanto la sinistra europea come denunziato dal Presidente della RAI Foa, riceve, cospicui finanziamenti dall’ America, bensì anche i sovranisti, per esempio nelle elezioni olandesi. E, a parte ciò, quante sono le “connections” con fondazioni, università, ecc…? Due esempi per tutti: l’attuale Presidente della Commissione, Juncker, è stato il grande architetto delle agevolazioni fiscali che, negli ultimi 40 anni, hanno permesso alle big five di sottrarre all’Europa la quasi totalità del loro reddito.

Quanto al suo predecessore, Barroso, non aveva esitato, dopo il pensionamento, neppure un mese a entrare a pieno servizio presso il suo vero padrone: la Lehman Brothers.

 

Lo schema fiscale con cui le multinazionli americane hannno svuotato l’ Europa

EU steps up its strategy for connecting Europe and Asia, ASEM MEETING 2018, BRUSSELS

ASEM covers most parts of EURASIA

The 12th ASEM Summit (ASEM12) was successfully held on 18-19 October 2018 in Brussels, Belgium.

The ASEM summit brought together:

  • heads of state or government of 51 European and Asian countries
  • representatives of the European Union
  • the Secretary General of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

The summit was chaired by the European Council President Donald TUSK. European Commission President Jean-Claude JUNCKER and High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica MOGHERINI, also represented the EU at the summit.

Discussions focused on the themeEurope and Asia: Global Partners for Global Challenges.

Leaders sought to strengthen dialogue and cooperation between the two continents on a wide range of areas, including:

  • trade & investment
  • connectivity
  • sustainable development and climate
  • security challenges such as terrorism, non-proliferation, cyber-security, irregular migration

Under the theme “Global Partners for Global Challenges” Leaders are addressing key opportunities and challenges facing Europe and Asia in a world of accelerating change.

Alpina’s “Yellow Book Series” devoted to Eurasia

Press Release:

“Brussels, 19 September 2018

The European Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy today adopted a Joint Communication that sets out the EU’s vision for a new and comprehensive strategy to better connect Europe and Asia.

The Joint Communication builds on the European Union’s own experience of enhancing connections between its Member States, with and in other regions. With sustainable, comprehensive and rules-based connectivity at its core, the Communication will help to guide the EU’s external action in this field and is a part of the implementation of its Global Strategy.

The Joint Communication on elements for an EU strategy on connecting Europe and Asia is available online.

“Connectivity is the way to the future. The more connected we are, the more opportunities we have – to find common political solutions and to bring economic prosperity to citizens”, said High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini. “Our approach is the European Union’s way: to establish stronger networks and strengthen partnerships for sustainable connectivity, across all sectors and based on a respect for common rules. This is the European way to tackle challenges and take opportunities, to the benefit of people in Europe and in Asia as well.”

Vice-President for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness, Jyrki Katainen said: “We want to work with our Asian partners to improve connections between Europe and Asia, while bringing our values and approach in doing so. Infrastructure networks that will be built should be coherent, interoperable, as well as financially and environmentally sustainable. Calls for tender should be open and transparent to promote good governance and a level playing field. It is an approach that works, and one that we see a demand for among Asian countries, in our Eastern neighbourhood, the Western Balkans and beyond.”

The Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica added: “The EU and Asia are important partners on sustainable development and delivering the UN 2030 Agenda. Our development cooperation is an essential element of our broader engagement and partnership with Asia, not least in promoting sustainable connectivity. We want to further strengthen our partnership and focus even more on providing technical assistance, improving regulatory environments and creating incentives to drive forward and scale-up much needed investments.”

Commissioner for Transport, Violeta Bulc, said: “Transport infrastructure is the lifeblood of EU-Asia connections, carrying both people and goods between the continents, on the wings of digitalisation and decarbonisation. Europe is sharing and engaging through one of the most developed transport networks and infrastructure financing programmes in the world: the trans-European transport network. Connectivity matters!”

 

DA QIN, “Greater China”: the classical  denomination of Europe in Chinese

 Sustainable, comprehensive and rules-based: connectivity the EU’s way

The EU will combine a principled approach to connectivity and recognition that Asia encompasses different regions, which are home to very diverse countries in terms of economic models and level of development, with concrete action based on three strands:

  1. Creating transport links, energy and digital networks and human connections;
  2. Offering connectivity partnerships to countries in Asia and organisations;
  3. Promoting sustainable finance through utilising diverse financial tools.

 

Viacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov: the inventor of the expression “Europe’s two lungs”

Creating cross-border networks

Efficient infrastructure and connections create growth and jobs and enables people and goods to move. From transport links to energy networks, people-to-people contacts to digital webs, the EU will extend its own networks and to contribute to new ones beyond its borders.

The EU’s Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T) are being extended to countries bordering Asia. The EU should now connect the TEN-T with networks in Asia. The EU’s digital single market provides a blueprint for enhancing trade in digital services, while its Digital4Development strategy fosters socio-economic development. We will share our experience of creating regional, liberalised energy markets with a focus on market-driven transformation towards clean energy. We will continue to promote human exchanges and mobility, for example in education, research, innovation, culture and tourism.

The New Silk Road

 Developing strong bilateral and global connectivity partnerships

Our world depends on smooth and secure flows of goods, services and people. With a track record of a rules-based, fair and transparent internal market, the European Union is engaging with partners beyond its borders in order to promote similar approaches to sustainable connectivity.

The EU will pursue bilateral connectivity partnerships. The EU-China Connectivity Platform, for example, will help both parties to create synergies and address differing points of view. At a regional level, the EU is able to draw on its experience of contributing to the enhanced connectivity and integration of various regional cooperation structures, for example in the Baltic and Black Seas, as well as with ASEAN and as part of the ASEM process. Fostering increased region-to-region cooperation in connectivity would enable the European Union to extend its sustainable and rules-based connectivity model. Finally, the EU will engage with international organisations in determining the legal frameworks and concrete forms of connectivity, for example to set international standards. The World Trade Organisation, the International Energy Agency, the International Maritime Organisation and United Nations bodies are just a few examples where the European Union is working and will continue to work for sustainable and fair global practices.

The ancient Silk Road created by the Persian Empire


Promoting sustainable financing of investment

With Asia requiring an estimated €1.3 trillion per year for infrastructure investment, there are significant opportunities for EU companies, provided that robust legal frameworks are in place. The EU will look to combine financial sources from international financial institutions, multilateral development banks and the private sector to ensure sustainable domestic and international finance for connectivity, while ensuring transparency and a level playing field for businesses. A comprehensive approach to investment financing, pioneered in Europe by the European Fund for Strategic Investments, as well as outside the EU through specific geographical investment facilities, has successfully leveraged investments for infrastructure and connectivity. Combined with the European Commission’s proposals for reinforced external action under the next EU Multi-annual Financial Framework (2021-2027), the potential for additional intelligent, innovative and multi-dimensional investment financing in and towards Asia is significant.

A better connected Europe and Asia through transport links, energy, human and digital networks will strengthen the resilience of societies and regions, facilitate trade, promote the rules-based international order, and create avenues for a more sustainable, low-carbon future. This Joint Communication will inform the EU’s engagement with its partners from the neighbourhood to the Pacific, bringing benefits for the people of Europe and those countries who see the value of our approach to connectivity.

 

 

15 – The Pearl River, a Youth Dream

I am 70  years old , and, in my life, I have gone through many, very different, jobs. In 1978. when I was 30, I was responsible for business development in countries for an Italian tannery.Among other countries, I had got in touch also with the Chinese Government. So, I was invited to attend the International Guangzhou Fair. At that time, it was not so easy to travel extensively in Asia. Therefore, I had arranged to link together my travels towards different countries, including Bangladesh, China and Korea. Notwithstanding a lot of difficulties that I met, it was for me an unforgettable experience.

Unfortunately, in the absence of cell phones, and being a work holiday in Italy, nobody had informed me that also the Government of Ivory Coast had called me for an urgent meeting in Abidjan. So, I had already arrived in Hong Kong. The day after, I postponed my meeting in Korea and organized a flight back to Italy via a different route. Moreover, because of further difficulties in communication, I had no clear idea on how to reach Guangzhou from Hong Kong. So, after a meeting in the Bank of China offices, I went to the premises of  the PRC travel organisation, where I bought a huge set of tickets which should have been of use for me for travelling, entering PRC and reaching Guangzhou. The following day, at 6.30 a.m., I  left Hong Kong central station by a metro driving through the New Territories and arriving at the PRC border, where I was obliged to go through a medieval check point not very different from the Jade Gate in the Great Wall, where very kind officials performed a lot of border checks offering always  new cups of tea.

In the afternoon, after lunch, I took  a very smart train provided with sleeperettes and good Chinese music in the background. From the windows, I could see, where now we have the skyscrapers of Shenzhen, just rice fields and peasants. When arriving in Guangzhou, the passengers (mostly businessmen visiting the International Fair), were welcomed by thousands of children flying multicoloured flags. In the hotel, my interpreter and guide informed me that I was invited by the management of the Fair to attend a show in the central theatre of  Guangzhou. The show was a political ballet alongside the style of the Beijing Opera, with texts in Mongolian, devoted to the Four Modernisations, a policy which had been launched just in those days.

During the night, I  found it difficult to sleep, because I was awaken continuously by the fuzz of the huge number of bicycles, to which I was not accustomed in Italy. The day after, I looked for my partners of the state-owned import-export company specialised in the international trade in hides, skins and shoes. Very competent guys, which were delighted to be able to discuss with me at length about the Italian market. At the end, I invited them to visit  our tannery – a thing that they did not much time later-.Afterwards, I visited the fair, which, at that time, looked very exotic, because it was devoted for a large extent to traditional Chinese productions, such as carpets and porcelain.

When coming back to the hotel, the reception recalled to me that, like in many other developing countries, I could not have left China if I had not  confirmed in advance my back flight and I had not obtained my exit visa. So, I paid a visit to my air carrier and to the police station. I  had also the time to make a tour through GuangZhou, which, at that time,  had not yet been completely reconstructed after the destructions of the war. Finally, I travelled back with some businesspeople of my town coming back after having purchased carpets and porcelain at the Fair. Then, I hurried to Abidjan, with a short round trip to the Luxemburg Court of Justice.

Without any doubt, my life in those times was very stressing.  I could not have endured it if I would not have been 30 years old; nevertheless, it was the most charming period of my life. Unfortunately, I could not attend the visit of the Chinese officials because I had become, in the meantime, an official of the European Communities in Luxemburg, a much lighter and safer job. However, I regret not having been able to be there, as well as not to have continued my business relations with the Chinese tanning industry.

I do not stop wondering how China has been able to develop since those distant days, and I think that its unique experience may be useful for the whole mankind.

If I could have become young a second time, I probably  would not have chosen to join the European Communities, and I would have continued to pursue the development of business in the charming Far East. But, since life is becoming longer and longer, why not doing it now, that the New Silk Road exists?

14 – Christian Priests and Monks alongside the Belt and Road

All religions have crossed the Silk roads at all times. Already in mythology, we have elements of Egyptian religion arriving on the Tibetan Plateau, where a Book of the Dead exists in  like in Egypt; Buddhism, Mazdeism, Manichaeism, have arrived into China via Sogdiana; Islam has crossed the Silk Road up to Samarkand and Hui mosques exist all over China.

Especially Christianity crossed the Silk Road in an impressive way. Apart from the disputed pretended travels of Christ in India claimed by Indus and Ahmadiyya, less controversial is the activity of Saint Thomas in Chennai (Tamil Nadu). I have visited his cell on Mount Chennai and in Sao Tome, a suburb along the coast, where, according to  a legend, he had been killed. In Dravidic India, several Christian confessions still exist claiming their origin from Saint Thomas.

The first peoples of the Middle East to be converted to Christianism were Syrians, Cartvelians and Armenians kingdoms existing among Roman and Persian Empires between Euphrates and Caucasus (Edessa, Caucasian Albania and Iberia). The Syrian Nestorians, followers of the Constantinopolitan Archbishop Nestorius, flying from the Roman Empire because of his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus, and, then, supported by the Persian Emperors, settled everywhere in Asia.

In the 7th Century, under the Tang Dynasty, the Syrian Nestorian monk Rabban (A-luoben in Chinese, crossed the border with China and came to Chang’An (today’s Xi’An), bringing with him the Holy Gospel.  At the same time, “the Jesus Sutras” were produced Emperor TaiZong had the Gospels translated and granted to Nestorians, baptized “The Enlightened Doctrine of DaQin” (Rome), the privilege of being a recognized religion of China. The DaQing Stele, with a summary of the “Sutras” and of the history of Chinese Nestorianism, and the “DaQin Pagode” (the main church of Nestorians in China) are still visible in Xi’an.

In the 13th century, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine had been charged of a mission at the Court of the Mongolian Khan, and wrote a report for the  Pope, which is known as the Historia Mongalorum. Later on, Khubilai Khan sent to the Pope, via the Polo brothers,  a message, asking him to send missionaries to China. The Pope appointed Giovanni da Montecorvino, who translated the Bible into the Chinese language. After a certain time, no bishop was appointed to Beijing any more, because the Black Death had  rendered it too dangerous to travel up and down the Silk Road.

When Vasco da Gama opened the road to Indies via the Cape of Good Hope Christian missionaries, and especially the Jesuits, flocked towards India, Japan and China. Especially in China, they played a special role, studying the Chinese and  teaching the European culture, advising the Emperor, introducing European cultural fashions into China, as well as Chinese ideas into Europe. Ricci translated Christian terms into Chinese, wrote books in Chinese and initiated the modern Chinese cartography; Castiglione portrayed the emperors KangXi and Qianlong and built an Italian style pavilion in the Forbidden City; Bouvet illustrated to Louis XIV and his advisor De Quesnais the political and economic ideas of the Chinese.

The description of China made by Jesuits was so impressive, that Voltaire, and especially Leibniz, expressed the idea that Europe should have been unified, like China, into a sole large kingdom. Leibniz was so fond of Chinese culture, that he suggested, in his work “Novissima Sinica” (“The Latest News from China”) that not only Europeans should have sent missionaries to China, but also Chinese should have sent their own to Europe.

Jesuits helped also the Chinese empire to arrive at an agreement with the Russian (the Nerchinsk Treaty). In Novissima Sinica, Leibniz, who had met Peter the Great in St.Petersburg, expressed the hope that the new Russia could have constituted a bridge between Europe and China.

The ancient relationships between Europe and China thanks to Catholic missionaries are still vivid on the background of the discussions under way for stabilising the relationships between the Catholic Church and China.

13 – My Destiny in Eurasia

I  was  present since my youth in several aspects of  trade along the Silk Road, in Russia, the Middle East, India and China, studying the cultures, the languages and the economies of those countries. My own family name hints at Asia. Wherever I go, from Bosnia to Greece, from the Gulf to India, everybody thinks I am of local origin, since Lala means “elder brother” or “flower” in many Islamic countries, and “red”, “lovely”,  “great”, “literate” or “rich” in several Indian languages.

I was thinking of Eurasia since I was a student. Already at that time, I thought that there would not have been a future for us Europeans without an active involvement in a Eurasia which, with all its troubles and crises, was, and is, the only region of the world where a remarkable, cultural and economic growth may take pace. In fact, the US, after their unprecedented growth after WW II, would necessarily have faced a crisis due to overstretching, as the events of Viet Nam and Middle East, as well as the subprime crisis, have shown. From another point of view, the European Union, not having been able to timely really unify the European continent, is now subject to the limitations imposed to its growth by the West and to its incapacity to find a common ground on the most important issues of the world. On the contrary, Asian countries, after two centuries of Western colonial rule, have recovered their traditional cultures and wealth, so overcoming all other countries of the world. If we consider that in Eurasia there is already the largest part of world population, it is clear that, in a thriving Eurasia, there is all necessary place also for Europeans.

Being conscious of this fact, I devoted a large part of my time to the study of the  languages and cultures of different parts of Asia, such as Chinese, Sanskrit, Arabic, Japanese, Hebrew and Russian. Moreover, I was active as a manager of the Italian industry, operating, before as a business developer, and, later, as a corporate lawyer, for projects in Africa, Russia, Middle East, India  and Far East. I had even been the responsible interface for legal matters of the FIAT Group for Eastern Europe and Far East during the Perestrojka era.  I have travelled extensively in those areas, and, in the last ten years, as managing director of a small publishing house, devoted to Europe and the world, I have founded a book series, called Evrazija-Avrasya, specialised in questions related to the relationships among Europe and Asia. In this series, the book “DaQin” has already been published, dealing with the necessity that, in considering the future of Europe, its relationship with Asia is taken into account. A second esdition, as well as collective work, “Europe riding along the Silk Road”,are under way.

12 – A Crucial Issue: Will Europe Really Participate in the New Silk Road?


Making long term forecasts is always difficult. However, at a first glimpse,  the New Silk Road has very good perspectives of being successfully implemented, for a series of simple reasons.

First of all, the core areas of  world civilisations have always been localised alongside the land and maritime Silk Road: China, India, the Middle East, Europe. During all periods of history, communications along the Indian Sea and in Central Asia have played a focal role, as shown, for instance, in the books “The Silk Roads” of Peter Frankopan, China’s One Belt One Road, of Bal Kishan Sharma and Nivedita Das Kundu, “La via della Seta” of Liu Xinru and “La Via della Seta” of Franco Cardini and Alessandro Vanoli. The remnants of sophisticated neolitic settlements, Roman, Persian and Chinese roads, of Phoenician and Greek ports, of Persian and Macedonian cities, of Buddhist and Taoist temples, of  Synagogues, Churches and Mosques, of Chinese and Japanese palaces, show still now how much crowded and busy these regions have been since the earliest antiquity. Even modern history, albeit dominated by European and American imperialisms, has witnessed an intense movement of goods, capitals and persons in Asia: in the Anglo-Indian Empire, in Chinese “concessions”, in Soviet Asia… As a consequence, there is no reason why these areas are not going to flourish again also in the future.

Besides that, the contemporary development of China has no precedents in recent history. After having been destroyed during  three decades of foreign occupation and of civil wars, China has continued to grow, irrespective of changing political trends and world economic climates, at a pace much faster than any other country in the world, being presently, at the same time, the most populated  country of the world and its major economic power.

There are other forums which are developing in parallel with the new Silk Road, the BRICS Plus, which includes, to a large extent, the same countries, but also Brazil, Mexico and Ghana; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and  the Eurasian Community.

A problem could arise from the coexistence of too many similar initiatives. However, the main problem is represented by Europe, which could constitute a fundamental partner for China. Unfortunately, Europe, contrary to China, in the 70 years which have followed World War II, has not yet been able to make up its mind as to which is its identity, and as to its projects for the future.  It is true that all European countries have adhered, in a way or another, to the project, but only if Europe will participate wholeheartedly and as a single player, there could be tangible results for it.

In any case, also China, which is the main sponsor of the Initiative, should take care to coordinate it carefully with the BRICS Plus, with the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and with the Eurasian Community in order to give a logic to the whole system.

11 – A New Consultancy and Mediating Formula for a Renewed Eurasian Community

I am the founder of the Alpina Publishing company, as well as of the Cultural association Diàlexis, both operating in Italy, and aiming at the promotion of the cultures of Europe and at the connection between Torino and the world.

We promote books and initiatives, and provide consultancy, on several interconnected areas: linguistic, M&A, cultural history, European integration, Alpine regions, Europe and the world. Within the framework of  this latter activities, we have launched  a “yellow” book series, starting with a book about Europe and China, whose title is “DaQin” for indicating that Europe may be conceived only through the eyes of third parties, and that China was, since antiquity, the main term of comparison.In particular, the philosopher Leibniz made, in his book “Novissima Sinica”, a thorough comparison among the two countries. We are preparing now a new book whose title will be “Europe Riding Along the New Silk Road”, dealing precisely with the impact of the New Silk Road on Europe.

Within the framework of our consulting activities, we have counselled Italian ICT companies in mergers and acquisitions with the US. We would be pleased to advise European and Asian companies also  in Eurasiatic mergers and acquisition. In the past, I had been personally involved in business development in Developing Countries on behalf of the CIR Group and in international contracts and mergers and acquisitions for the FIAT Group. In my capacity as European official in Luxemburg, I had written a book on European development financing. I have also been an official legal translator of the former European Economic Communities.

I share the substantive reasons behind the Silk Road Initiative, and I am trying to give my contribution to the latter, having recourse to my competences, to my previous experiences and to my personal connections with the European Union, the business community and the authorities of Torino, with intellectuals devoted to European and Eurasian problems and the Chinese community in Italy.

I am trying, starting from the preparation and the diffusion of the books of the “yellow book series”, to create in Northern Italy a community devoted  to the study and the discussion of Eurasian initiatives, as well as to the consulting in favour of businessmen and companies willing to  initiate business ventures in the Silk Road area.We have already worked out an ICT project for the promotion of the Alpine Region along the Silk Road, which we would like to further develop together with other partners.For this purpose, I will welcome any proposals, from public entities, companies, other publishers, associations or authors, for carrying out projects together.

10 – A New Cultural and Economic Era for Torino

In present days, everything in Europe, and especially in my town, Torino, reveals a sense of contingency and decadence. Our city, an ancient capital, located in an exceptional position underneath the Alps, surrounded by green hills and on the shores of the main Italian river, the Po, was the company town of the FIAT conglomerate, which, in the 70ies, included car manufacturing, banking, insurance, consulting, training, trucks, harvesters, aerospace, trains, bio-medicals, weapons, lubricants, electronics, publishing -in Italy, the Americas, Europe, Middle East, India-

Today, Torino  has no more than some thousand workers employed in Torino by FCA (the American group into which FIAT has been merged). All other big companies, which, at their times, existed in Torino or in its neighbourhoods (such as SKF, CEAT, Toro, Augusta, SAI, Olivetti, Lancia, Giugiaro, Pininfarina, CIR, IPSOA, Einaudi, Loescher, Lattes, Paravia),  do not exist anymore, have been sold out to foreign groups, or have transferred into other towns. Notwithstanding the authorities’ pretension that cultural industries have effectively substituted metalworking, in reality also culture is very week. The result is that the population of the town is constantly shrinking: Torino has lost about 300.000 inhabitants.

Our enterprises, our families, our youth, are leaving the city. Even a part of former immigrants have already migrated to other destinations. There are few things left. Our population, highly educated, with hundred thousands intellectuals, entrepreneurs, managers, engineers, technicians, businessmen, professionals, specialized workers, is jobless or underemployed. The only professions which thrive are bartenders and caregivers.

By contrast to the unbelievable attitude of American (and even European) purchasers of our industries, which have closed, or transferred, our companies as soon as they have purchased them,  Chinese acquirers, always more numerous, have shown a noteworthy interest in safeguarding the autonomy and the role of our local staff. An outstanding example thereof is constituted by the takeover of Pirelli in Milano and its recent floating at the stock exchange. The corporate governance of Pirelli according to the Shareholders Agreement of August 31, 2017 guarantees, also in consideration of the floating to the stock exchange,  the maximum of autonomy, as stated in the Whereas: “with the aim to safeguard the corporate culture of Pirelli, maintaining in the long run the present management”, which will remain the sole responsible, under the direction of Marco Tronchetti Provera up to 31 December 2019  and will suggest the name of the new managing director. “The technological know-how of Pirelli will remain in the hands of Pirelli”, and the operational and managenent headquarters shall remain in Milano.” 

This type of collaboration  has compromised  the life of the city of Milano and the jobs and business opportunities of its citizens even less than the atypical merger of FIAT in FCA, which has implied in reality the transfer abroad of all important functions of the company. In case FCA or a part thereof  should be purchased by a Chinese group, we should expect that stipulations corresponding to the ones of Pirelli would be adopted. Apart from that, Torino has already about ten subsidiaries of Chinese company; the local TRW has just been taken over and Pininfarina, belonging to the Mahendra Group, is actively cooperating with Chinese for a  new hybrid luxury car.

If this trend goes on in the same direction, it should imply at least increased opportunities for them who, as I am, are interested in increasing cooperation with China for the benefit of our youth, our intellectuals, our entrepreneurs, our businessmen, our workers. In fact, the former mayor of Torino, Piero Fassino, had made many efforts for having the railway connection with the Silk Road in Torino (instead of Mortara, as it happens to be now). However, since a new mayor has been elected since two years, we have no further news of the project.

The opportunities for collaboration are particularly strong in the cultural sector, where the concentration of ownership in the hands of a few Western groups has reduced drastically the freedom of expression, in the press and in publishing in general. As indicated by Peter Lavelle of the Russian television RT News (Rossija Segodnia) in a debate of CGTV, it should be a task of the media of the BRICS  countries to foster a freer communication climate worldwide. We hope that a massive presence of Chinese capitals in our region could create this wider diversification of the media, and, hence, enhance the opportunities of establishing independent voices.